Fire testing of railway materials by EN 45545-2

The EN 45545-2 standard outlines the requirements for evaluating the fire behavior of materials and components used on rail vehicles, including trains, subways, and trams. Testing in accordance with the standard is compulsory throughout Europe.
Railway material fire safety testing by EN 45545-2
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The purpose of EN 45545-2

As trains have limited, often crowded spaces, it is crucial to ensure that fire does not start easily, spread quickly, or release a significant amount of heat, smoke, or toxic gases to its surroundings. EN 45545-2 standard lists the required tests to assess these properties by material type and the hazard level of the vehicle.

Train component fire testing

Choosing the testing procedure

The appropriate EN 45545-2 testing procedure is determined based on material type (interior & exterior surfaces, upholstery, flooring, cables, etc.) and vehicle hazard level (HL1–HL3). Testing conditions are strictest for materials used on HL3-level trains, which are the most difficult to evacuate for reasons such as having sleeping cars or operating in tunnels.

There are a total of 26 requirements (R1–R26) tailored to specific types of materials or components. Each requirement covers one or several tests based on other EN and ISO standards. For example, meeting the R10 requirement for floor composites requires passing the EN ISO 9239-1 and ISO 5560-1 reaction-to-fire tests and the EN ISO 5659-2 smoke generation test.

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