High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)
High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) is an analytical technique which is used for determining the exact molecular masses of compounds present in a sample. The highly accurate nature of HRMS makes it ideal for identification of molecular structures, ranging from small organic molecules to large biological macromolecules.
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What is HRMS?
HRMS is an analytical technique which is used to determine the atomic masses of organic and inorganic molecules or monatomic ions present in different kinds of samples. High resolutions can be achieved through a variety of different mass spectrometers, yet the fundamental workings are similar.
HRMS analysis begins by passing a sample into the spectrometer, where it is ionized. The formed ions will travel along the length of the spectrometer, being separated by their relative charges and masses. Once the ions reach the end of the spectrometer, they are picked up by a detector, and information is logged on a computer.
For every ionic species which passes through the mass spectrometer, a ratio of charge-to-mass is recorded, usually to four to six decimal places. This can be compared to theoretical values for the exact masses of different chemical species in order to determine which atoms and/or isotopes each detected ion contains.
What is HRMS used for?
HRMS is a technique which is used across a variety of fields due to its accuracy and ability to discern the presence of multiple chemical species, even at very low concentrations. It is used primarily for detection and identification of these species. As such, it finds use across a wide range of sample types, from very small organic and inorganic compounds, to much larger biomolecules and materials.
HRMS is very useful when it comes to identifying unknown compounds. This is because the results that are generated are accurate and precise, making results far more certain than a lower resolution setup. HRMS can also be used for isotope analysis, as it is able to accurately show the differences in masses caused by the presence of different isotopes.
What is the difference between HRMS and mass spectrometry?
The key difference with HRMS over standard mass spectrometry is the hugely increased resolution that it offers. Here, resolution is a term which describes the difference one would see between two peaks on a set of mass spectrum data. Essentially, what this means is the higher the resolution that a mass spectrometer can provide, the better it will be able to distinguish between different chemical species, even when they have very similar masses. For example, two compounds may have different elemental makeups, yet have very similar relative masses. With low resolution mass spectrometry, these would be indistinguishable, making it much more difficult to resolve which is present in a sample. HRMS on the other hand would be able to demonstrate the very slight difference in masses due to the different elemental makeups, making it far more suitable for distinguishing between the two compounds.
What are the limitations of HRMS?
In theory, every chemical composition has a specific mass which, when properly resolved, can be determined through HRMS. This means that as a technique it is ideal for determining the elemental and isotopic makeup of a species or fragment present in the sample.
The main limitation, however, is that this technique generally cannot determine the difference between geometric isomers of organic molecules with the same exact masses. While some samples will break into smaller fragments during ionization, and this will provide clues to the geometric layout of the molecule, it won’t provide an exact answer in the same way that some other, more suitable techniques would.
Sample requirements and preparation
HRMS can be used to analyse a wide range of different types of sample and therefore the preparation requirements depend on the sample and instrumentation. Depending on the setup in question, the sample may need to be dissolved in a solvent prior to ionization, though this isn’t always necessary. Regardless, generally only a very small amount of sample is required for HRMS measurements.
Looking for an HRMS analysis?
Measurlabs offers HRMS analysis services of high quality with fast results and competitive prices. If you have any questions about your sample or it’s suitability for the method, our experts are always happy to help. You can contact us through the form below or by emailing us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Suitable sample matrices
- Organic compounds
- Inorganic compounds
- Determining the presence of low levels of chemical species
- Identification of unknown compounds
- Isotope analysis
- Contaminant analysis
Frequently asked questions
High-resolution mass mass spectrometry is an ideal technique for identifying and determining the elemental and isotopic contents of a sample with high levels of precision.
The technique generally cannot determine the difference between geometric isomers of organic compounds with the same exact masses. So, isomers with the same exact atomic structure cannot be distinguished from each other.
Organic and inorganic compounds, oligomers and biomolecules.
Measurlabs offers a variety of laboratory analyses for product developers and quality managers. We perform some of the analyses in our own lab, but mostly we outsource them to carefully selected partner laboratories. This way we can send each sample to the lab that is best suited for the purpose, and offer high-quality analyses with more than a thousand different methods to our clients.
When you contact us through our contact form or by email, one of our specialists will take ownership of your case and answer your query. You get an offer with all the necessary details about the analysis, and can send your samples to the indicated address. We will then take care of sending your samples to the correct laboratories and write a clear report on the results for you.
Samples are usually delivered to our laboratory via courier. Contact us for further details before sending samples.
High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) is an analytical technique which allows for the determination of the elemental and isotopic contents of a sample with a high level of precision. Measurlabs offers high quality HRMS-analyses for various industries.